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Argentine History:

The beginning of prehistory in the current territory of the Argentine Republic occurs with the first human settlements in the extreme south of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. The first agro-pottery civilizations were established in the Andean northwest from the 18th century BC. C. The beginning of the history recorded by quipus by the Inca Empire in northwestern Argentina occurred in the second half of the fifteenth century.

The written history of what is now Argentina began with the arrival of Spanish chroniclers in the expedition of Juan Dáz de Solís in 1516 to the RÃo de la Plata, a fact that marks the beginning of the Spanish domination in this region. In 1776 the Spanish crown created the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, an agglutinating entity of territories from which, with the May Revolution of 1810, a gradual process of formation of several independent states began, including the one that led to the the name of United Provinces of the River Plate. With the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, it was formalized what from the organization as a federal state in 1853-1861 is known today as the Argentine Republic.



The first human beings who arrived to the current Argentine territory seem to have arrived at the southern end of Patagonia from what is now Chile. The oldest remnants of human presence are found in Piedra Museo (Santa Cruz) and date back to 11,000 years BC. Together with the deposits of Monte Verde (Chile) and Pedra Furada (Brazil), they constitute, up to now, the oldest settlement sites found in South America. These deposits support the theory of the early settlement of America (pre-Clovis).

Another ancient settlement was located in Los Toldos, also in the province of (Santa Cruz), with remains dating from 9,500 years BC.

These first inhabitants of the Argentine territory were dedicated to the hunting of milodons, [1] (mammal like a big bear with a camel's head, already extinct) and hippidions [2] (South American horses that disappeared 8,000 years ago), besides "S of guanacos, llamas and Ć ± andÃŗes.

Near there, it is also possible to see the hand and guanaco paintings printed 7,300 years BC in the Cueva de las Manos (RÃo Pinturas, Santa Cruz). It is one of the oldest artistic expressions of the South American peoples and has been declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco.

For the year 9,000 a. C. the poblamiento of the pampa had already begun, whereas the zone of the northwest of the country began to be inhabited towards the year 7,000 years adC.

Cultural areas:

The aboriginal peoples of Argentina were divided into three major cultural groups:

* the hunters and gatherers, who inhabited Patagonia, the Pampa and the Chaco;

* the Andean farmers, installed in the Northwest, Cuyo and the Sierras of Córdoba, belonging to the great Andean civilization whose highest exponent was the Inca Empire;
* the farmers of the plains in Mesopotamia, belonging to the TupÃ-Guaranà culture.

Tastil, in the north, was the largest pre-Columbian city located in the current Argentine territory, with a population of 3,000 inhabitants.

In the XIV and XV centuries the Inca Empire conquered part of the current provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, TucumĆ "n (its western end), La Rioja, San Juan, northwestern Mendoza and possibly northern Santiago del Estero, [3] incorporating its territories to the Collasuyo that was the southern part of the Tahuantinsuyo or regions of the Inca Empire. The conquest is traditionally attributed to the Inca Tápac Yupanqui. Several seigneurs of the region, such as the Omaguacas, the Atacamas, the Huarpes, the Diaguitas and others, tried to resist but the Incas managed to dominate them, transferring to their territories the mitimaes or colonists deported from the tribes of the chichas, who inhabited in what is the southwest of the current Bolivian territory. Others, such as the sanavirones, the lule-toconotà © and the comechingones successfully resisted the Inca invasion and remained as independent seà ± oros.

Conquest and Colonial Era:

Initial Expeditions:

The first Europeans who came to what is now Argentina, did so looking for a step towards the Asian continent. By then America was only an obstacle between Spain and the riches of Catay and Cipango in Asia. The area, moreover, was located approximately on the Tordesillas Line, the division of the world that was established by treaty between Spain and Portugal and therefore had, for both countries, the condition of the border not yet occupied.

Although there are many discussions about the authenticity of the trips of America Vespucio, several historians accept as a fact that it participated in the first European (Portuguese) expedition to reach the present Argentine territory, more specifically to the Rio de la Plata in 1502 .

In 1516 the Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís visited what is now known as Argentina, navigating the current Río de la Plata, which he called Mar Dulce because of its low salinity. It arrived until the present island MartÃn GarcÃa [4] and died after sailing a brief stretch of the RÃo Uruguay. When the expedition returned to Spain, one of the caravels was shipwrecked in Santa Catarina, leaving 18 nuggets there. One of them Alejo GarcÃa was the first to know the legend of the White King, about a country rich in silver, making an excursion to the region of Potosà where is the Cerro Rico, where he made a huge treasure of silver pieces . When he returned, he died in a battle with the Payaguà «s Indians.


In 1776, the Spaniards elevated the status of this region of government to viceroyalty, by establishing the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. This viceroyalty encompassed what is now Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, as well as most of what is now Bolivia.

Initially, the city of Buenos Aires had suffered serious problems of supply of basic goods, since foreign trade was monopolized by Spain and said country prioritized the port of Lima, since there could be obtained large amounts of gold and silver, products absent around Buenos Aires. As a result, there was a strong development of contraband. The main production of Buenos Aires at that time was leather. The situation of the city improved after the creation of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate.

Spain imposed Christianity and the Castilian language. Throughout Spanish America, Spanish customs and fashions prevailed, although the different ethnic groups and cultures that made up the colonial population also found mechanisms to preserve some aspects of their cultural, linguistic and religious patrimonies, which often merged between yes to generate new cultural manifestations.

Emergence of the Nation State:

In 1806 and 1807, in the framework of the Napoleonic Wars that took place in Europe, the English Invasions took place. Sir Home Riggs Popham and William Carr Beresford led the first, which took control of the city of Buenos Aires for 45 days until its expulsion by an army from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers. A second attack, led by John Whitelocke, managed to be successfully resisted. The conflict had political consequences: a break in the institutional law in force in the viceroyalty was created, when Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was removed and the victorious Liniers elected by popular acclamation, without direct intervention by the King of Spain. In addition, during the second conflict, the available soldiers were insufficient and could not count on the help of the metropolis, so that several sectors of the population usually neglected received weapons and command of troops. This allowed them to have greater interference in the affairs of public life. Among them stood out the Regiment of Patricians, composed of Creoles and commanded by Cornelio Saavedra.

The Independence of the United States (1776), the French Revolution (1789) and the new ideas of the Enlightenment, were combined with the fighting traditions of Creoles, indigenous and African-Americans against the Spanish Empire to promote the ideas of freedom, equality and independence in Latin America.

The May Revolution of 1810 deposed and expelled the Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, and proclaimed, after an Open Cabildo, the first government formed mostly by criollos in the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, called the First Junta.

Between 1810 and 1820 there were two government juntas, two triumvirates and the Directorio, a unipersonal and centralist form of government. In this period, the main concern of the governments was to consolidate internally and face the resistance of the realists (defenders of the status quo and maintaining the ties that united these regions to Spain). In 1816 the independence of the United Provinces of South America was declared at the Congress of Tucumán.

The DÃ © cada Infamous (1930-1943)

The infamous decade began with the military coup of September 6, 1930 led by General Josà © Fà © lix Uriburu that overthrew President Hipà ³ lito Yrigoyen of the Radical Civic Union, who had been democratically elected to exercise his second term. mandate in 1928. The military government, of fascist inspiration, outlawed the Radical Civic Union and organized a fraudulent and controlled "electoral exit" by the Armed Forces that gave rise to a series of fraudulent and corrupt conservative governments that lasted until 1943 This period was characterized by the beginning of the new economic model known as industrialization by import substitution.

The military dictatorship of Uriburu:

On September 10, Uriburu was recognized as de facto president of the Nation by the Supreme Court through the agreement that gave rise to the doctrine of de facto governments and that would be used to legitimize all other military coups.

Following a trend that would be general in future coups d'etat, Uriburu appointed a civilian as economy minister, Josà © S. Pà © rez, linked to the big landowners and the most conservative sectors.

After the Radical Civic Union won in 1931 the elections convened in the Province of Buenos Aires, the military government annulled them and proscribed radicalism, in order to prevent it from coming to power. In this way came to power, through illegitimate and fraudulent elections, a conservative alliance called La Concordancia, composed of the National Democratic Party (conservative), the Radical Antipersonalist Civic Union and the Independent Socialist Party.


On June 4, 1943, there was a new coup d'état led by Generals Arturo Rawson and Pedro Pablo Ramírez and supported by several military sectors, among which was a group of Army soldiers called GOU (Group of United Officers). , composed of about twenty mostly young officers with diverse ideologies who shared a nationalist approach. The coup overthrew President Ramón Castillo who was replaced by General Arturo Rawson, who immediately (three days later) was replaced in turn by General Pedro Pablo Ramírez.

The Revolution of the 43 contained in its interior diverse sectors that fought among themselves to control the direction of the process. One of those sectors was led by the then colonel Juan Domingo Perón, who initially held a position of minor significance as secretary of the Ministry of War, headed by General Edelmiro Farrell. From the second half of 1943 he began a policy of alliance with the trade union movement that would allow him to occupy increasingly influential positions in the military government. On this path, his designation in charge of the irrelevant Department of Labor, later elevated to the level of the State Secretariat, became fundamental.

The Liberating Revolution:

On September 23, 1955, the Armed Forces commanded by General Eduardo Lonardi overthrew Peru and established a dictatorship called the Liberation Revolution. The military government imposed the proscription of the Justicialist Party (Peronist) and persecution of its supporters, which would remain for 18 years, and the intervention of the unions. Also, in an unprecedented case in modern Argentine history, in 1956 the military government shot, in some cases publicly and in other cases clandestinely, 31 Peronist soldiers and civilians who had attempted a coup d'état.
The Liberation Revolution had an Advisory Board composed of most of the political parties: Radical Civic Union, Socialist Party, National Democratic Party, Christian Democratic Party and Progressive Democratic Party.
The coup group was divided into two sectors: a nationalist-catholic sector led by General Eduardo Lonardi, who took the government at the beginning, and a liberal-conservative group led by General Pedro Eugenio Aramburu and Admiral Isaac Rojas that finally through a Internal coup d'état displaces the former and replaces Lonardi with Aramburu as president.
The military government assigned the Ministry of Economy to a civilian, succeeding Eugenio Folcini, Eugenio Alberto Blanco, Roberto Verrier and Adalberto Krieger Vasena, who carried out a policy inspired by the criteria of the socially well-off and economically powerful sectors.

Government Management:

Arturo Illia took office on October 12, 1963. His management of government was characterized by promoting economic and social measures of popular orientation and at the same time by a considerable political weakness derived from the relatively small first minority with which he assumed power ( 25%) and the relatively high number of blank votes (18%), second electoral minority. This high percentage of blank votes was mainly due to the fact that Peronism was outlawed, many of its supporters resorted to a blank vote as a form of repudiation to that extent.

Among the main government measures can be mentioned:

* Eliminated the electoral and political restrictions that weighed on Peronism, although not on Juan Perón, whose return to the country he managed to avoid in 1964 by resorting to the recently installed Brazilian military dictatorship. [19] He also legalized the Communist Party.

* The Minimum, Vital and Mobile Salary Law, No. 16,459, which established the Salary Council, of tripartite integration with representatives of the Government, businessmen and trade unions was sanctioned. The real hourly wage grew between December 1963 and December 1964 by 9.6%.

* The Supply Law was sanctioned, aimed at controlling the prices of the family basket and the setting of minimum amounts of pensions and pensions.

* Oil policy: the oil exploitation concession contracts, signed under the government of Arturo Frondizi with foreign private companies, were annulled as being contrary to national interests and because special benefits had been assigned to these companies, transferring the entrepreneurial risk to the state company Yacimientos PetrolÃferos Fiscales (YPF).

* The education had a significant weight in the National Budget, taking it from 12% in 1963 to 23% in 1965. In addition, a National Literacy Plan was launched, with the aim of reducing the illiteracy rate.

* The Medicines Law (Ley Oâ ± tivia) of 1964 established a policy of prices and control of medicines and prescription according to a generic medicine, set limits for advertising expenses, and payments abroad for gifts and royalties. purchase of supplies. This law, described as communist by the military sectors and large foreign companies, had a decisive weight in the process that would culminate with the overthrow of the democratic government.

* The economic policy was characterized by the development-Cepalian orientation of the economic team and oriented to the ordering of the public sector, to reduce the public debt and give impetus to industrialization. The Sindicatura de Empresas del Estado was created, for a more effective control of public companies.
The evolution of the Gross Domestic Product during that period was 10.3% for the year 1964 and 9.1% for the year 1965. Also the industrial indicators were very positive, and the unemployment went from the 8 , 8% in 1963 to 5.2% in 1966.

The Argentine Revolution:

On June 28, 1966, a military uprising led by General Juan Carlos OnganÃa overthrew President Arturo Illia (radical of the town). The coup gave rise to a dictatorship called the Argentine Revolution, which no longer presented itself as Ā «provisional government», as in all previous coups, but was established as a permanent system. This type of military dictatorships of permanent type, were installed at that time in several Latin American countries in those years (Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay, etc.) and was analyzed in detail by the prominent politician Guillermo O'Donnell who named with the expression of authoritarian bureaucratic state (EBA).

The Argentine Revolution dictated in 1966 a Statute that had a legal level superior to the Constitution and in 1972 introduced constitutional reforms, something that also distinguished it from the previous dictatorships. In general, the dictatorship adopted a fascist-Catholic-anti-Communist ideology, openly supported by both the United States and the European countries.

The high political and social conflict generated during the Argentine Revolution and the struggles between the various military sectors produced two internal blows, with three military dictators taking power: Juan Carlos Ongana (1966-1970), Marcelo Levingston (1970-1971) and Alejandro Agustín Lanusse (1971-1973).

Economically the dictatorship gave the Ministry of Economy to the most conservative-liberal civil sectors, whose maximum exponent was Adalberto Krieger Vasena, who had already been a minister of the "Liberation Revolution". It should be noted, however, that during the Levingston dictatorship, a nationalist-developmentalist sector of the Armed Forces predominated, which appointed the radical Aldo Ferrer Minister of Economy.

Malvinas wars:

In 1982 Argentina waged a war for the sovereignty of the Malvinas Islands. The defeat of the Argentine troops and the death in combat of around 600 soldiers, gave the final blow to the military regime.

Argentine Economy:

The economy of Argentina benefits from enormous natural resources, a highly literate population, a sector oriented to agricultural exports and a diversified industrial base. However, its economic results have been very uneven throughout history. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was one of the countries with the best prospects in the world, but over the years it has gone through various adversities and crises that have had a negative impact on the economy of the country. However, at present, the Argentine Republic is considered one of the main emerging powers, like other countries such as Brazil, China or India.


Agricultural and livestock sector:

The production of agricultural food is traditionally one of the mainstays of the Argentine economy, mainly the production of grains (cereals and oilseeds), which together constitute the country's first export. In particular, the soybean chain as a whole (beans, seeds, oil, pellets, flour and biodiesel) is, together with the oil chain, the base of export activity.

For its part, cattle raising, which provides the raw material for the meat industry, is a sector of great importance, with around 55-60 million heads, although in recent years, soybean crops have gone displacing to land of lower value. Beef is the main component of the diet of the population.

Additionally, the production of fruit and vegetables, which contributes 3% of exports and has important production centers in the Patagonian valleys dedicated to apples and pears, in the northwest region producing sugar, citrus and tobacco, is of some importance. , in this region livestock is beginning to stand out, a sector that was displaced from the Pampas due to the imposition of soybeans and other commodities, in the mesopotamia producing citrus fruits and in Cuyo, which in turn highlights a considerable agroindustrial production of olive, grape and especially wine, being the first producer of wines in Latin America and the fifth producer in the world with 16 million hectoliters per year.

Oil, mining, forests and fishing:

The second Argentine export product was petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical products, responsible for 20% of the total. The main deposits are found in Patagonia, Cuyo and the Northwest; the province of Neuquén concentrates nearly half of all hydrocarbon production. A network of pipelines and pipelines transports the products to Bahá Blanca, where the main petrochemical center and the industrial conurbation that runs between Rosario and La Plata and whose main nucleus is Greater Buenos Aires.

Historically, Argentine mining has been scarce, but it has been activated in the last decade, mainly on metal ores: gold, silver, zinc, manganese, uranium, copper, and sulfur. The mineral resources are concentrated in the Andean provinces along 4,500 km. Argentine mineral exports increased from 200 million dollars in 1996 to 1,200 million in 2004, a little more than 3% of the total. [8]

The Argentine Sea is located on an extensive submarine platform, very rich in fishing resources, which reaches a width of 550 km at 52º South latitude and 1,890,000 km². However, fishing has been a marginal production, and due to the hake population crisis, caused by excessive fishing during the 1990s, the main Argentine fishing product, the sector's share of total exports has been reduced by 3% to 2%

In the opposite direction, forest and wood production, mainly pines and eucalyptus, has been expanding, with center in the mesopotà © micas provinces, surpassing 2% of the total exported.

Manufacturing and construction industry:

The Argentine manufacturing industry is the sector that contributes the most value to the GDP, with 23% of the total (2005). The manufacturing sector is also one of the main sectors of employment generation (along with trade and the public sector), with 12% according to the 2001 Census, although it is likely that this percentage has now increased and the industry is the largest generator of direct employment in the country. For its part, the construction industry contributes 5% of GDP (2005) and has been the main driver of the recovery of employment after 2002.and 2003

As of 2003, the industry has undergone a process of competitive revitalization, driven mainly by the economic policy of the high dollar. Although industrial activity is mainly oriented to substitute imports, the automotive industry contributes 7% of exports, while the iron and steel sector contributes 3% of the total. Other important industrial sectors are textiles and footwear, food, chemical, paper, wood and cement. In the particular case of the food industry, in recent years agroindustrial economies have been developed in many provinces, through the creation of processing and packaging industries, especially fruit, horticulture, dairy products, viticulture and corn.

The Greater Buenos Aires is still the most important industrial area of ​​the country, where most of the manufacturing activity of Argentina is concentrated. Other important industrial centers exist in Cordoba, Rosario, Tucumán and Mendoza, San Luis and Tierra del Fuego, many of them fostered to decentralize the industry.


Colonial period (1580-1810):

The repression of the Indians of the CalchaquÃes Valleys, the delivery of many of them to work in the Potosà mines, the process of miscegenation, and especially the demographic collapse of the indigenous population, made the encomiendas that Once they flourished in the Tucumán they were dwindling. In the second half of the sixteenth century, both Alto Perú and Tucumán, as well as Paraguay, demanded the creation of a port in the South Atlantic to be able to establish closer trade links with Spain and at the same time reduce its isolation. It is for these reasons, and because of the threat of foreign incursions into the River Plate that the Spanish Crown authorizes the second foundation of Buenos Aires.

In the Rio de la Plata, the colonization had been concentrated in Paraguay, where the Guarani were numerous and sedentary, liable to be entrusted. In 1573 Governor Juan de Garay went to repopulate Buenos Aires. On the way, Garay decided to found an intermediate city in the place: Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. Garay's task was completed in 1580, when he founded the city of Trinidad and Puerto de Santa Maria del Buen Ayre, which would eventually be known as the City of Buenos Aires, as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

During the last third of the sixteenth century, thanks to the introduction of the amalgam technique with mercury, the production of silver had doubled, as well as the mortality of the Indians. The so-called "Imperial Valley", came to have a population of 160,000 inhabitants and it became the main consumer market of Hispanoamerica. In this context, Buenos Aires becomes the natural entrance and exit of the Altoperuanos and Paraguay products. On the one hand inputs and thousands of black slaves to replace the dwindling indigenous population and on the other hand the silver produced on the hill of PotosÃ.

Establishment of the National State (1810-1880):

Establishment of the National State (1810-1880) [edit]

The revolution of May 1810 unleashed a wave of changes, as the Alto PerÃŗ of the Viceroyalty was separated, the River Plate was deprived of its main consumer market and the region producing precious metals. The economies of the interior were isolated and their mercantile sectors stopped fulfilling the binding role between Buenos Aires and the Alto Perú, initiating a process of internal migration and depopulation of the northwest that would not stop from now on. The revolutionary process could not contain the tensions that the Bourbon power had kept hidden. For many years, the provinces of the interior had tolerated the centralism of Buenos Aires based on the legitimacy of the King, but now, his disappearance eliminated all the reasons for that malaise not to come to light.

From the economic point of view, Cordoba had been more linked by its trade to Alto Perú and Cuyo than to Buenos Aires. Cuyo, in turn, was closer to Santiago de Chile than to the capital and in general all the provinces of the north depended from every point of view to the Alto Perú. Likewise, most of them did not share the official policy adopted since the beginning of free trade, as this harmed their internal economies.

The development of the labor market:

Immigration was proportional to the development of Argentina. Before 1860, there was relatively little migration in the country; the population in 1869 reached little more than 1.8 million people [23] and, due to the scarcity of population, huge tracts of land remained unused. For the year 1930, the population reached 11 million. [24]

The shortage of work became a critical point, but these results that began to experience the country allowed high wages and, therefore, a gulf between the wage indexes of Argentina and an impoverished Europe, particularly Italy and Spain. to. This facilitated the massive immigration that was sustained each year until the First World War (except in 1890 where there was an economic withdrawal). While half of European immigrants chose to stay in the city of Buenos Aires, their addition to the labor market offered by the country helped alleviate the shortage of work in the field. Subsequent migrations of natives and foreigners helped to secure a labor market for the economy of the coastal region.

The solution to the lack of labor facilitated economic development. While wages may have fallen for a period, immigrants, as an important factor in production, helped to diversify Argentina's commercial markets. Previously, the livestock sector -costoso- had dominated the production. But with the large workforce available, the arable sector allowed for development. Consequently, Argentina's trade ceased to specialize in any product. This helped fortify the country against the vagaries of the world economy (social and political stability), contributing to the Argentine development experienced between 1870 and 1920.

The prosperity of the post World War I:

Once the First World War ended, North American capitals and Wall Street began to appear preeminently on the international sphere and Argentina enjoyed the longest period of prosperity and social peace until then.
Between 1919 and 1929 the GDP of Argentina grew to 3.61% per year, considerably surpassing Canada (2.65%), the United States (2.16%) and Australia (1.64%). Also, the increase in GDP per capita in Argentina was the highest of the four countries, averaging 1.75% per year. It was the golden age of the Argentine economy, reaching no less than the sixth place in world GDP in 1928. [25]
However, the world crisis that triggered the collapse of the stock market in 1929 (black Thursday) marked the end of the Argentine growth model driven by the export of cattle and grain products from the Pampas region.

The 90s: economic opening

The economic reforms of this decade have been based on the privatization of public services and the opening of the economy. In 1991, the economy minister Domingo Cavallo resorted to the parity of the Argentine peso with the US dollar (Convertibility Law) due in part to the pressing inflation suffered by the country in the late 1980s. " Thus, high growth rates began to be recorded between 1991-1994 and 1996-1998. In 1995 by the Tequila Effect ā ???? which showed how an external event could influence the country as a result of globalization ???? caused a negative GDP growth. This reached 300 billion dollars in 1998. The nominal GDP per capita (the highest during the 1990s "in Latin America) [33] reached 8,300 dollars. that same year. Exports went from 12,500 million dollars in 1990 to almost 27,000 million dollars in 2000 with an increase of 110% in that period. [34] All these figures were correct for the country. However, this model produced an economic concentration in the financial, services and agro-export sectors, at the same time as a structural unemployment close to 20% in its worst moments. From 1994 to the third quarter of 2006, unemployment at the national level has always been two digits. The poverty measured in the agglomerate Greater Buenos Aires oscillated in this decade between 33.7% in 1990, 16.1% in 1994 and 26.7% in 1999, being lower than the registered in the hyperinflationary crisis of the late 1980s.

Recovery and expansion of the economy:

With a "high dollar policy" that allowed the production of goods and services at competitive prices in the international market, some industries in Argentina began to re-emerge after the crisis.

In mid-2002, signs of economic reactivation began to appear and from 2003 to 2007, the country registered a phase of economic growth with rates that hovered around 9% (8.8% in 2003, 9% in 2004, 9, 2% in 2005, 8.5% in 2006 and 8.7% in 2007), partly due to a high dollar economic policy aimed at favoring the substitution of imports, which has increased the competitiveness of Argentine industry. Because of the recovery of the economy that has been observed in the period 2003-2007, and taking into account that in the third quarter of 2005 the Argentine GDP (in Argentine pesos and at constant prices) exceeded the value of 1998, the economic crisis It is finished.

According to the latest official data from the Central Bank of the Argentine Republic and the INDEC, in 2007 the gross domestic product in nominal value was 812,072 million pesos at current prices equivalent to 260,578 million dollars, with a nominal GDP of 6,621. dollars.


During the 1990s, the Argentine financial system consolidated and strengthened. Deposits grew strongly, even after the recession that began in 1998.
Even if, the banking system lent dollars and took deposits in Argentine pesos. But during the economic and financial recession of 2001, measures were taken such as the freezing of private deposits (known as the corralito), as well as an asymmetric devaluation of loans and deposits, made many banks technically they go bankrupt.
From the economic growth registered since 2003, banks again earn deposits, which went from $ 114,462 million in December 2004 to $ 169,729 in December 2006, which implies a growth of more than 48% . [70]
According to a study conducted by the Association of Banks of Argentina (ABA) the first ten banks, as of December 2006, by level of deposits of the Private Sector No

Financial are:

1. National Bank of Argentina
2. Banco RÃo de la Plata
3. BBVA Banco Francà © s
4. Bank of Galicia and Buenos Aires
5. Bank of the Province of Buenos Aires
6. Bank of the Province of Cordoba
7. Bank of the City of Buenos Aires
8. Citibank Argentina
9. Banco Credicoop Coop. Ltdo

10. BankBoston
11. HSBC Bank Argentina

Argentina Soccer Team:

The Argentina Soccer Team is the representative team of the country in the official competitions. His organization is in charge of the Argentine Football Association, belonging to CONMEBOL.
The Argentine national team is one of the most successful teams in the world. He played the first international match outside of Argentina, on May 16, 1901 in Montevideo.
It was champion in two opportunities of the World Cup of Soccer (1978 and 1986) and finalist in other two occasions (1930 and 1990).
In 1992, the Argentine team won the FIFA Confederations Cup of that year, while in 1995 and 2005 they played the final of that tournament, falling to Denmark and Brazil respectively.
Argentina is next to Uruguay, the selection that more times has won the American Cup, achieving it in fourteen occasions. In addition it is the selection that more subchampions achieved in the competition, in about twelve opportunities.
In the Olympic Games the Argentine National Team won the gold medal in the 2004 and 2008 Olympic Games. In turn, it won the silver medal in 1928 and in 1996.
The youth team U-20 is the maximum champion of the World Cup in the category, with 6 titles in 1979, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2007. In addition he was a finalist in the 1983 edition.


The Argentine National Team has a great football rivalry with Brazil, being today one of the biggest players in the world of football. Also, the rivalry with England is notorious, especially after the Malvinas War and the 1986 World Cup, where Argentina eliminated the English with the 2 remembered goals of Diego Maradona. Another classic duel of the albicelestes is with Uruguay, with whom they dispute the traditional and ancient Clà "sico del RÃo de la Plata.

Politics of the Argentine Nation:

The Argentine Nation adopts the representative, republican and federal model for its democratic government. It has a presidential system and a multiparty political organization. The maximum norm that governs the Argentine policy is the Constitution of the Argentine Nation.

Executive power:

Corresponds to the President of the Argentine Nation and is in charge of the administration and to fulfill the interests of the National State.
In the general elections the President and the Vice President are elected by direct universal suffrage in a single district. The constitutional reform of 1994 introduced the double-round mechanism, so that if the most voted formula exceeds 45% of the valid votes or 40% with an advantage greater than 10% with respect to the second, its members They will be proclaimed President and Vice President, being necessary, otherwise, to hold a second round between the two formulas voted in the first round, in which the President and Vice President will be proclaimed those who obtain the highest number of votes.
In 2003, the results of the first round determined that a second round had to be held, but Carlos SaÃŗl Menem (victor in the first round) was abandoned due to the unanimity of the polls that gave him a loser, being proclaimed President NÃ © © stor Kirchner, who in the first round had obtained something more than 22% of the votes.
The double-loop procedure has the antecedent of the transitory clause by which the military government that governed Argentina since 1966 established it for the March 1973 elections with a requirement of 50% of the votes to win in the first round. Hà © ctor Josà © Cà "mpora, candidate of Frejuli obtained 49.5% of the votes but there was no second round because Ricardo BalbÃn of the Radical Civic Union that had come second with 21.3% acknowledged his defeat.
The President is the supreme head of the Nation, head of the government, political responsible of the general administration of the country and Commander in Chief of all the armed forces of the Nation.

Legislative power:

Corresponds to the Congress of the Argentine Nation, integrated by the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Nation and the Senate of the Argentine Nation is in charge of dictating and sanctioning the laws.
The Congress, elected by universal suffrage, is bicameral:

Chamber of Deputies:

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 257 deputies elected for four years, with partial renewal by halves every two years. Each province represents an electoral district, choosing representatively by system DĀ "Hont the number of deputies that corresponds to each one. The number of deputies of each district is determined according to their population but can not be less than 5 to ensure a greater representation to the less populated provinces, which would otherwise be reduced to one or two.
Official page of the Chamber of Deputies


It is a province of provincial representation composed of 72 senators; 3 for each province and 3 for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. They are elected for a period of 6 years with the possibility of unlimited re-election and two senators are awarded to the most voted party and a third party to the party that follows in number of votes. The Senate renews one third of its members every 2 years. The presidency of the Senate rests with the Vice President of the Nation, who can only vote in case of a tie. On Senate party composition and its renewal, refer to the article Senado de la Nacion Argentina.

Power of attorney:

Corresponds to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Argentine Nation (also to smaller courts) and is in charge of administering justice.

Supreme Court of Justice

Members appointed by the President with the agreement of the Senate.

Council of the Magistracy:

It administers the Judicial Power and is in charge of the selection through a public contest of the magistrates.

Public Ministry:

Independent organization with functional and financial autonomy for the promotion of the performance of justice in defense of the interests of the community, being integrated by a General Procurator and a General Defender of the Nation.

Jury trial:

The current Constitution has already established the jury institution for ordinary criminal trials since 1853 but this was never put into practice, there were projects to do it.

Other State Institutions:

General Audit of the Nation:

Autonomous organization of technical assistance to the Congress for the audit of the update of the executive power. Its president is appointed at the proposal of the political opposition party with the largest number of legislators in Congress (deputies and senators together).


Independent organization instituted in the field of the National Congress, with full functional autonomy, for the defense and protection of human rights and other constitutional and legal rights as well as for the control of the exercise of public administrative functions. Elected for a mandate of 5 years that can be renewed only once, by two thirds of the members present in each of the Chambers of the National Congress.

State Organization:

The Argentine Republic is a Federal State constituted by 23 Provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that fulfills the constitutional function of being the Capital of the Republic. Each Province constitutes an autonomous state that exercises all the power not expressly delegated to the Nation and has legislative powers in the terms established in their respective constitutions in which they expressly express their adhesion to the Republic. The executive power of each province is exercised by a governor; both the extension of his mandate and the way to be elected and the possibility of re-election are determined by each provincial constitution that, in general, establish the duration of the mandate in four years. Among its obligations is to enforce the Constitution and the laws of the Nation, hence the National Constitution refers to them as natural agents of the Federal Government. The provincial legislative power is exercised by the corresponding provincial Legislature that can be unicameral or bicameral as established by each provincial Constitution.

Each province has territorial subdivisions that are called departments, except in the Province of Buenos Aires where they are called parties. Depending on what each province decides, the departments can be subdivided into districts, districts or barracks that may or may not have administrative functions. For the administration of the interests of the local population, the National Constitution recognizes the municipalities as autonomous entities created by the provincial governments by the laws that regulate the exercise of their autonomy, having provinces that consider them as autonomous entities. The municipalities are administratively classified mainly according to the number of inhabitants. The nature, composition and powers of the government of each locality depend on its rank, establishing in the different constitutions the classification criteria and the forms of government, existing also local governments without municipal category generally in small localities or in ¨ Rural areas, which take different names: development commissions, municipal commissions, government boards, rural communes, communes, etc.

The localities that by fulfilling the requirements for their creation are declared Municipalities are governed by a Municipality whose executive branch is exercised by a Mayor or Municipal President, elected by direct universal suffrage and whose legislative branch, with authority for the sanction of Municipal Ordinances, is exercised by a Deliberative Council or Municipal Council in most cases, being the number of councilors determined by law generally depending on the number of inhabitants of the municipality. For the municipalities that comply with certain legal requirements decide to make use of their institutional autonomy, most of the provinces give them the power to establish their own form of government by means of the sanction of an Organic Charter or Municipal Charter with constitution character. municipal.

Science and technology of Argentina:

Science and technology in Argentina is a set of policies, plans and programs carried out by the government, national universities and institutes, companies, and other national and international organizations and associations oriented to research, development and innovation ( R + D + i) in Argentina, as well as the infrastructure and scientific and technological facilities. Place of formation of the first Nobel prizes in sciences of the Hispanic world, among them the first Nobel in Latin American science Bernardo Houssay as well as other world scientific eminences such as Luis Agote, Renà © Favaloro, Luis Federico Leloir, Domingo Liotta, Cà © sar Milstein and countless world-class scientists, Argentina is sometimes called the "Latin American scholar."

However, despite the high capacity of Argentine human resources, the main problems facing science and technology in the country are, firstly: the low investment in them compared to the international level. According to data from 2005, [1] science and technology verify a strong dependence on public financing that provides 65% of the investment distributed by 43% in the government sector and 22% in public universities. With regard to GDP, the public sector contributes 0.30% while the private sector contributes 0.16%, although the participation of the private sector in scientific and technological activities has been increasing since 2002.

Another problem is the brain drain because the professionals trained in the country find more job opportunities and better paid abroad. In the last forty years the country has grown scarcely in qualified human resources and in knowledge. This resulted in the fact that the trained scientists and professionals could not find a place to develop their skills and emigrated in search of opportunities to other more developed countries. Although Argentina has universities and training centers of academic excellence, however, skilled labor must leave the country, generating the phenomenon known as brain drain, which according to the times was motivated by reasons different: during the decades of the 60s, 70s and early 80s it was mainly due to political persecution reasons that began when the military regime intervened public universities and persecuted the investigators, many of whom had to go into exile. In the 90's to the present to economic factors. In recent years, most of this flight is made up of young people who emigrate to perfect themselves; and ends by opting to stay outside and those that decide to "try their luck" in more developed countries. While there are no statistics to accurately measure the phenomenon, it is estimated that in the last thirty years some 50,000 university students emigrated, of which 40% are scientists.

Public Research Bodies:

* The main scientific research organization in Argentina is the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET). It is a state institution, dependent on the national government, in the area of ​​the Secretariat of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation. The CONICET has an Investigator Career and is organized in Institutes, which enjoy thematic and scientific autonomy.

Other important organizations are:

* National Academy of Sciences of Buenos Aires
* National Agency for Scientific and Technological Promotion
* Argentine-North American Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Culture
* Science Association Today

* Electronic Library of Science and Technology
* Argentine Center for Scientific and Technological Information
* Center for Educational Research and Documentation (CIDE)
* National Commission of Space Activities (CONAE): Its mission is to execute the Argentine Space Plan. Its main objective is the generation from the information space referring to the national territory of Argentina, which combined with that of other origins, contributes to improve the areas of social and economic activity in the country. For this, it has spatial information generated by satellites built and designed in Argentina.
* The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA): Agency in charge of regulating nuclear energy | nuclear activities in the country.
* Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences FLACSO
* Fund for Scientific and Technological Research (FONCYT)
* Argentine Technological Fund (FONTAR)
* Fundação Torches

* Foundation for Innovation and Technology Transfer (INNOVA)
* Fundació de Historia Natural FÃ © lix de Azara
* Argentine Antarctic Institute - National Directorate of the Antarctic
* Institute of Geochronology and Isotropic Geology (INGEIS)
* Institute of Scientific and Technical Investigations of the CITEFA Armed Forces
* Research Institute in Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology (INGEBI)
* Military Geographical Institute (Argentina) (IGM)
* International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)
* National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA): Its functions are to generate, adapt and transfer technologies, knowledge and learning processes for the agricultural, forestry and agroindustrial environment within a framework of ecological sustainability.

* National Institute of Industrial Technology (INTI): dedicated to the development of industrial technology.
* Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
* Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture
* Scientific-Technical Production of the CONICET Investigators (PUBAR)
* Ameghino Project
* Network of Indicators of Ibero-American Science and Technology (RICYT)
* S & T Information Network for Latin America and the Caribbean
* Latin American Network of Information and Documentation in Education

* Network RAICES
* RETINA- Academic Teleinformatic Network
* Specialized Meeting of Science and Technology of Mercosur (RECyT)
* Secretariat for Technology, Science and Productive Innovation (SECy)

Scientific and Technological Installations:

Scientific and Technological Facilities are understood as scientific equipment that requires a large investment for its construction and maintenance and which are usually integrated into well-differentiated structures. Two types of facilities are considered: those located in Argentina, and those located outside the national territory but with Argentine participation.
In November 1995, Unesco chose Argentina as the southern headquarters to install the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargüe, province of Mendoza, which started operating in 2005. It is a joint venture of more than 20 countries in the collaboration of some 250 scientists from more than 30 institutions, with the aim of detecting subatomic particles that come from outer space called cosmic rays.

Climate of Argentina:

Due to the longitudinal and latitudinal amplitude, Argentina has a great variety of climates. In general, the predominant climate is temperate although it extends to a subtropical climate in the north and a subpolar in the extreme south. The north of the country is characterized by very warm and humid summers with mild and dry winters, being subject to periodic droughts. The center of the country has warm summers with rain, storms, thunder (producing hail in the western zone), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous areas. The highest elevations in all latitudes are those that experience the coldest conditions, with a cool and snowy montane climate.

The warm and humid climates of the north give temperatures that oscillate between the 27 Ā ° C in January and the 12 Ā ° C in July and very abundant precipitations in the province of Misiones with 2000 mm that descend towards the west with 600 mm. The temperate climate is found in the Pampean region with an average temperature of 15 ° C and rainfall ranging from 1000 mm east to 500 mm west. The Iberian climates include the northern half of the Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, the steppe located to the southwest of the Pampa, and the Patagonia extraandina, often with great daily amplitudes, sometimes greater than 25Āŗ of difference between day and night , fundamentally in the northwest of the country. In the arid steppe climate north of Patagonia average temperatures are less than 15Āŗ, frequent frosts and scarce rainfall (400 mm a year). In southern Patagonia the average temperature is lower than 10Āŗ and the rainfall is 300 mm. The humid cold climates cover the southern half of the Andes, the southern islands and the Antártida and are characterized by an average temperature of around 7Ā ° C, although it varies with height. The precipitations are of around 2000 mm and until 4000 mm in the limit with Chile and they lower sharply towards the East, until the 300 mm. Winter snowfalls are frequent.


The climate is dominated by two air masses, such as warm, humid winds from the intertropical area of ​​the Atlantic Ocean and cold, dry winds coming from the southern Pacific area. The important winds in Argentina include the cold Pampero that blows in the plain of the Patagonia and in the pampas region, after a cold front; the North Wind, is a warm wind that can blow from the north in the middle and ends of winter creating a mild climate; and the Zonda, a warm and dry wind that affects the central-western zone. Devoid of all humidity during the 6,000 meter slope of the Andes, the Zonda can blow for hours with gusts of up to 120 kilometers per hour. When the Zonda blows (from June to November), snowstorms and blizzards generally affect the higher elevations.

The Sudestada is associated with a deep system of low pressure in the winter. Sudestada moderates cold temperatures but usually brings heavy rains, seas agitation, and flooding in coastal areas. It is the most common wind at the end of autumn and winter, along the coasts of the central zone of the country and in the estuary of the RÃo de la Plata.

The southern regions (particularly in the extreme south) experience long periods of daylight from November to February (up to nineteen hours), and extended nights from May to August.

Severe weather in Argentina:

On the Pampean plain, and especially on the province of Buenos Aires, storms and tornadoes occur during the passage of lines of instability or cold fronts. Although the tornado is an event associated with the invasion of very hot and humid tropical air, it can also occur in winter. The most auspicious season begins in October and ends in March, but half of the remaining cases occur in April and September. Over the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe and Córdoba tornadoes can be formed anywhere and the frequency is such that at least one town per year is affected.

Map of the Argentine Provinces:


Fuento: It is a collection of many sites




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